Англійська мова

Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення igor4uk » 18 жовтня 2011, 22:29

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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Староста » 25 жовтня 2011, 17:32

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Семестр 1. Група 4 => Семестр 2. Група 1. = Карпович Вікторія
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Obi-Van » 07 листопада 2011, 17:23

Драмарецька, діалог 5

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1 Hey, Beth, I saw you running across campus this morning. What was the hurry?
2 Oh, hi, Ted. I do this every morning I'm on campus, this morning was nothing unusual!
1 You go running across the campus every morning just for fun?
2 Oh, I'm not running for fun. I have to do that. It's the only way I can get to class on time.
1 You have two classes on a row that are on upside sides of the campus?
2 Oh, it's much worse than that. I have four classes in a row. And I seem to have managed to choose four classes with one in each of the four corners of campus. So, everyday I end up running from the first class to the second and from the second class to the third and from the third class to the last one.
1 Why on earth did you schedule your classes that way?
2 It sounded like a good idea when I scheduled my classes. I thought it was a good idea to bunch my classes together. I have classes at 8 o'clock in the morning, at 9 o'clock. 10 o'clock and at 11 o'clock Monday through Thursday it means that I'm finished with all of my classes by noon.
1 But it's not working out for you, is it?
2 No, it's not. I can't get from one class to the next without running because the classes are so far apart and even though I move pretty quickly from class to class I'm still usually late to each class. Here I thought I was making such a great schedule for myself when I selected these classes. I mean it does sound nice to have all of my classes in the morning four days a week, doesn't it ?
1 That part of it sounds good. It would be nice to have afternoons and evenings free, but the part where the classes are so far apart and you have to run from class to class and you’re still late all of the time that part doesn't sound so good.
2 It’s not. I can assure you.
1 Maybe next semester you need to consider where your classes meet and not just when they meet.
2 That absolutely makes sense to me.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Obi-Van » 09 листопада 2011, 16:57

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текст 6-7
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British Character

Much has been said and written about the British character. Traditionally the British have been known as insular. They are reputed to be superior, snobbish, aloof and haughty people who do not yell in the street, make love in public or change their government as often as they change their underclothes. These characteristics have been noted by observers from all over the world. However, thousands of visitors who come to Britain find the ordinary Briton friendly and affable. Why this contradiction? The traditional opinion about the British was based on the type of Briton who could afford to. travel abroad. The qualities so justly criticized by observers in other countries were those of the upper class. Britain had for centuries been the leading merchant nation upon which it was proudly claimed the sun never set. The British ruling class, with its long record of success, developed a sense of superiority and arrogance to an extreme degree. The members of upper class are actually haughty, formal and cold.
But there are certain English feature typical of people of all classes which nobody can deny. The most striking of them are self-discipline and courtesy. Also the fact that they prize privacy and resent being observed, that they do not like to display their emotions in public and are always good- tempered and cheerful. The English have a keen sense of humor. You will hardly find another country where practical jokes are as a common thing as they are in Britain.
The British are usually considered to have good manners. And it is true, they are predominantly polite. They are untiring in saying, 'Thank you' and 'I'm sorry'. They await their turn in queues at bus stops and elsewhere and nobody tries to cut ahead of the queue.
In England it is bad manners to speak confidently. The person who does immediately becomes unpopular. The British do not like to state things in a self-assured manner. They much prefer to hum and haw and wind up by saying, 'Well, you know what I mean', though actually you haven't the foggiest idea. If a Briton is told a patent lie he is not likely to call the offender a liar. He will probably say: 'Is that so?' or 'It's rather an unusual story, isn't it?
To avoid heated argument at a social gathering there are some topics that are: implicitly taboo: politics and religion. The best topics for light social conversation are weather, pets, art and sports. If one sticks to them, no unpleasant exchanges of words, let alone blows, are likely to occur.
The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home, they say And when the man is not working, he withdraws from the world to the company of his wife and children and
busies himself with the affairs of the home. An Englishman’s home is his castle, is a saying known all over the world; and it is true that English people prefer small houses built to house one family, perhaps with a small garden. The fire is the focus of the English home. Life is not worth-while without the open fire, the toasting fork and the ceremony of English tea. Even when central heating is installed it is kept so low in the English home that Americans and Russians get chilblains.
The institution that has always played an exceptionally important role in Britain's social life is the pub. Apart from being a place where a traveler could get food, shelter and drink it was often the center of community life in an area, and it was there that gossip and news was exchange and the latest political developments discussed. Part and parcel of a self-respecting Englishman's day is his visit to the 'local' for a 'quick one'. There is plenty of lively congenial company at the 'local' and after or instead of a pint of bitter, he can play darts, dominoes, snooker, discuss the weather or the current situation. The most wide-spread British national hobbies are sports, gardening, amateur dramatics and keeping pets.
Востаннє редагувалось Obi-Van в 28 листопада 2011, 19:19, всього редагувалось 2 разів.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Obi-Van » 22 листопада 2011, 07:46

Драмарецька, діалог 6
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1 Hi, I have a few questions about how we need to handle our work in a science laboratory
2 I gave very specific instructions at the first lab meeting.
1 And we have to complete the lab work exactly that way?
2 That’s what I'd like. Yes.
1 Do we need to work in a lab in a group?
2 Yes.
1 And work with the exact group members we were signed?
2 Is there a problem with your group ?
1 Well, during the first lab session we had a difficult time agreeing on how to proceed with our experiment.
2 Of course you did. That's to be expected. There are four people in your group, so you most likely had four different ideas on how to proceed. Part of the task is for the four of you to work together as a group, to discuss as a group how the experiment should proceed and arrive at a consensus before you begin.
1 During the first experiment we spent almost the entire three hours in a lad discussing what to do next.
2 Perhaps your group should meet before the next lab session to figure out how you are going to proceed with your experiment when you get to the lab.
1 OK. I’ll see if I can get my group to try that. But it’ll probably take my group several ours even to decide when to meet much less actually figure out what we are going to do during a lab session
2 OK. Please, try that and see if your new group can work it out. Now, was that an only question you have or do you have another?
1 I actually do have another question, it's about the lab report. Is the lab report supposed to be the group assignment or individual assignment?
2 The lab report is to be an individual assignment. Each person involved in an experiment should write up a separate lab report about the experiment.
1 So, the experiment has to be conducted by the group and the report about the experiment has to he written up individually by each participant.
2 That's exactly right.
1 And does the report need to follow the form as you described to us?
2 It absolutely does. I'm extremely strict about the form. I'd like the form to be exactly as I describe.
1 OK. I get the point.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Василь » 28 листопада 2011, 06:59

YATEL .Lesson 5. Text A. INFORMATION EXPLOSION AND DATA PROCESSING IN MODERN SOCIETY

An outstanding characteristic of modern society is the powerful flow of knowledge and information in different fields of human activities. Information is often called the lifeblood of modern civilization. It plays an ever increasing^ part in everyday life, management of business, etc.
The scientific activity, with all its technical and economic outcomes and consequences, is today passing through a period of particularly rapid development For instance, over the past 150 years the range of human knowledge has been doubled every twelve to fifteen years. In 1930, man knew four times as much as he did in 1900; by 1960 man's knowledge had grown sixfold , and by the year 2000 it can be expected to be a hundred times what it had been a century ago.
The present-day information explosion must be properly dealt with. To handle the information flow properly and instantly, to help specialists find immediately an information and data needed urgently a multiple of machines have been invented. They are now widely used for this purpose.
The compute,^ with its millionfold increase 2 in man's capacity to handle information, undoubtedly, holds the first place. Without the computer, date and information processing would be impossible, say, in space programs. It is the phenomenal speed of computers that makes them practically well suited to pursuing activities that require instant solution to complex dynamic problems; They are extensively used in the control and monitoring of space vehicles. Computers are ideal for high-volume computing tasks 3 such as the computation and analysis of statistical and mathematical data as well as scientific and engineering calculations.
For example, before production can be started in the factory, raw materials and parts have to be procured. This involves the data processing system in the preparation of purchase orders. When supplies are received they have to be recorded on appropriate stock or job records, which again involves data processing.
When production is due to begin 4 materials, and parts have to be issued to the production centres and suitability recorded on issue notes which are subsequently гесогded on stock and job records. The issues are often priced, and extended. These are also data processing operations.
In the industry, for instance, one of the new generation of press control combines a menu-driven press computer with a programmable. press controller. The press control system monitors all vital functions of the stamping system. It provides an infinite capacity for storing all your setup information.
Total system diagnostics 5 are enhanced by the computer to provide oh screen remedies for identifiable problems. Not only do you know why the press has stopped, but now you know where the problem is and how to remedy it.
On-line operating data 6 are automatically recorded. You can now call up a report to tell all about the job while it is running and how long to completion. The computerised control system has the flexibility to meet all production needs, its configuration can be expanded to meet new requirements for more information.
Thus information and data processing is a special activity performed by the administrative organization for the business as a whole. It is concerned with the systematic recording, arranging, filing, processing and dissemination of facts relating to the phisical events occurring in business.
From the above said it can be concluded that data processing systems provide information and information provides the basis for managerial control of business operations to achieve corporate objectives 8 as effectively as possible. This means making the most suitable decisions based on the information provided.
A management information system therefore embraces the data processing systems, control systems (using information provided by the data processing system), and decision making based on the facts indicated by the control systems.
A data processing system in its simplest form consists of three primary elements: input, processing and output. These elements apply whether the system is manual, mechanical or electronic.
A computer system consists of five, elements, viz. input, processing, output, storage and control
r It is absolutely necessary for every active member of modern society to be able to use the computer system in data (information) processing and management.

СКАЧАТИ DOC: http://radfiz.org.ua/files/k2/s3/Englis ... xt%20A.doc
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Obi-Van » 28 листопада 2011, 09:30

Драмарецька
American character
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American Character

What's the difference between an American and a European really? There's the rhythm of life, l here is all the time the urge for action, as opposed to reflection. In Europe there are people who have lived in the same house and been in the same job for 20, 30, 40 years, and who would hate to pull up their roots and change to something new. That's not the American way of life. They love change, they call it 'the spirit of adventure', a spirit that they think is more characteristic of America than of Europe. There was an interesting remark in a book by an English writer giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic. He wrote: "We in England, and the French, the Germans, the Italians, the Russians, have all got one thing in common - we are descended from the men who stayed behind. In the States they are descended from the folk who moved away". And so they still like 'to move away', to change homes and jobs. They seem to be constantly pulling down old and often quite beautiful houses or throwing away things merely because they are old. They have none of the Englishman's sentimental love for things because they are old.
Americans are the descendants of immigrants, sometimes of quite recent ones. Immigrants are typically people who, for whatever reason, believe that, through effort and the endurance of suffering, life can be made better. Life in a new country with a new language is not easy. Yet immigrants are constantly uprooting their lives, leaving most of their friends and family behind, and going to the US. So it is no mystery that Americans have a drive to work harder and become more successful.
Theodore Roosevelt once told a reporter that the grizzly bear should be the symbol of America, not the eagle. He likened America to the grizzly bear because it is solitary. He went on to say: The world will never love us. They may respect us, they might one day fear us, but they will never love us, for we have too much audacity'. It has been said that while most empires turned complacent as they grew successful, the US has turned more neurotic and industrious. There are many reasons for this, but the American cultural inheritance is crucial.
The Englishman prizes privacy, The American prefers sociability. They use first names when calling each other, slap on the back, joke and are much freer in their speech, which is more slangy than the conventional British English. You will often hear the word "Hi" (a form of greeting among friends) used instead of the usual "Hello," and "Howdy" instead of "How do you do?" Those who don’t easily show these signs of friendship are called "snooty" or "snobbish". In contrast, people who show such simple signs of friendship, particularly to their own economic and social inferiors, are praised as "regular guys," or as "truly democratic." As a description of character, democratic is generally used to signify that a person of high social or economic status acts in such a way that his or her inferiors are not reminded of their inferiority.
Without exception, travelers to the United States found the most striking feature of the American character to be the obsession with business and wealth. The travelers cite this preoccupation with money as the reason for other "American" traits, such as their hurried manner, serious expression, and even their loose morals. Some writers attribute the quest for riches and commitment to hard work to their puritan roots while others found the business practices of Americans completely sacrilegious. Surprisingly, many travelers also see a dependable, honest kindness running through this severity and downright greed.
The American houses have no hedges or fences separating them from the pavement or from each other. There are none of those little shut-off gardens; generally just a strip of grass with trees on it. The American in his home doesn't object to being seen by everyone - he actually likes it. And inside the house, instead of separate hall, living room, dining room so typical of the English house, the American has the 'open plan' house, just one large room where all the family activities go on with, perhaps, a 'dining recess' or a 'kitchen-breakfast-room'
However, American society must not be regarded as all of one piece. No one who knows American even a little would make a mistake of thinking Americans all alike.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Obi-Van » 03 грудня 2011, 11:15

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Information explosion
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і ще щось
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Obi-Van » 11 грудня 2011, 19:22

Драмарецька, заліковий переклад
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Semiconductor (1 варіант)

A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. Semiconductors are tremendously important technologically and economically Silicon is the most commercially important semiconductor, though dozens of others are important as well.
Semiconductor devices, electronic components made of semiconductor materials, are essential in modern electrical devices, from computers to cellular phones to digital audio players. Semiconductors are very similar to insulators. The two categories of solids differ primarily in that insulators have larger band gaps — energies that electrons must acquire to be free to flow. In semiconductors at room temperature, just as in insulators, very few electrons gain enough thermal energy to leap the band gap, which is necessary for conduction. For this reason, pure semiconductors and insulators, in the absence of applied fields, have roughly similar electrical properties. The smaller bandgaps of semiconductors, however, allow for many other means besides temperature to control their electrical properties.
Semiconductors’ intrinsic electrical properties are very often permanently modified by introducing impurities, in a process known as doping. Usually it is reasonable to approximate that each impurity atom adds one electron or one "hole" (a concept to be discussed later) that may flow freely. Upon the addition of a sufficiently large proportion of dopants, semiconductors conduct electricity nearly as well as metals. Depending on kind of the impurity, a region of semiconductor can have more electrons or holes, and then it is called N-type or P-type semiconductor, respectively. Junctions between regions of N- and P-type semiconductors have built-in electric fields, which cause electrons and holes to escape from them, and are critical to semiconductor device operation. Also, a density difference of impurities produces in the region small electric field which is used to accelerate non- equilibrium electrons or holes in it.
In addition to permanent modification through doping, the electrical properties of semiconductors are often dynamically modified by applying electric fields. The ability to control conductivity in small and well-defined regions of semiconductor material, both statically through doping and dynamically through the application of electric fields, has led to the development of a broad range of semiconductor devices, like transistors. Semiconductor devices with dynamically controlled conductivity are the building blocks of integrated circuits, like the microprocessor. These "active" semiconductor devices are combined with simpler passive components, such as semiconductor capacitors and resistors, to produce a variety of electronic devices.


Band structure(2 варіант)

Like other solids, the electrons in semiconductors can have energies only within certain bands between the energy of the ground state, corresponding to electrons tightly bound to the atomic nuclei of the material, and the free electron energy, which is the energy required for an electron to escape entirely from the material. The energy bands each correspond to a large number of discrete quantum states of the electrons, and most of the states with low energy are full, up to a particular band called the valence band. Semiconductors and insulators are distinguished from metals because the valence band in the former materials is very nearly full under normal conditions. The ease with which electrons in a semiconductor can be excited from the valence band to the conduction band depends on the band gap between the bands, and it is the size of this energy bandgap that serves as an arbitrary dividing line (roughly | eV) between semiconductors and insulators. The electrons must move between states to conduct electric current, and so due to the Pauli exclusion principle full bands do not contribute to the electrical conductivity. However, as the temperature of a semiconductor rises above absolute zero, the states of the electrons are increasingly randomized, or smeared out, and some electrons are likely to be found in states of the conduction hand which is the band immediately above the valence band. The current-carrying electrons in the conduction band are known as "free electrons", although they are often simply called "electrons" if context allows this usage to be clear. Electrons excited to the conduction band also leave behind electron holes, or unoccupied states in the valence band. Both the conduction band electrons and the valence band holes contribute to electrical conductivity. The holes themselves don’t actually move, but a neighbouring electron can move to fill the hole, leaving a hole at the place it has just come from, and in this way the holes appear to move, and the holes behave as if they were actual positively charged particles. One covalent bond between neighboring atoms in the solid is ten times stronger than the binding of the single electron to the atom, so freeing the electron does not imply to destroy the crystal structure. The notion of holes, which was introduced for semiconductors, can also be applied to metals, where the Fermi level lies within the conduction band. With most metals the Hall effect reveals electrons to be the charge carriers, but some metals have a mostly filled conduction band, and the Hall effect reveals positive charge carriers, which are not the ion-cores, but holes. Contrast this to some conductors like solutions of salts, or plasma. In the case of a metal, only a small amount of energy is needed for the electrons to find other unoccupied states to move into, and hence for current to flow. Sometimes even in this case it may be said that a hole was left behind, to explain why the electron does not fall back to lower energies: It cannot find a hole. In the end in both materials electron-phonon scattering and defects are the dominant causes for resistance.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Batarchuk » 12 грудня 2011, 14:42

Вася, есть фотки МКР2 ? Если есть - залей пожалуйста сегодня.
Група 3. Батарчук Сергій.
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