Англійська мова

Англійська мова

Повідомлення (shurik) » 07 вересня 2011, 22:09

Група 1. Драмарецька.
1. Текст "The Role of Science in human life"
2. Діалог
3. Приклади і вправи по інфінітиву
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Batarchuk » 08 вересня 2011, 17:05

Спасибо! Качество супер! Это с телефона так?
Група 3. Батарчук Сергій.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення (shurik) » 08 вересня 2011, 18:45

Да. Сфоткал -> FineReader и готово :-)
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Ксюха Шаптала » 11 вересня 2011, 15:32

Привет. Если у кого-то есть Ятель(желтый) в електронном виде.
Плиз скиньте плиз.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення (shurik) » 11 вересня 2011, 17:14

Ксюха Шаптала, есть какой-то. Только там первая часть плохо отсканирована.
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення qwerty » 11 вересня 2011, 20:20

Скани, англійська Ятель
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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Василь » 11 вересня 2011, 22:31

YATEL. LESSON ONE. TEXT A. EVERYDAY ENGLISH AND TECHNICAL ENGLISH

At, present, the contacts between people of different count¬ries are increasing. This enhances the importance of the study of foreign languages. However, sometimes we don't even know which of the world's languages we should take into consideration. The matter is that the total number of languages in the world is very large. In different reference books it varies from five to eight thousands. The numerical distribution of people speaking different languages is extremely, uneven. There are not many languages in the world each of which has more than 50 million people. On the other hand, there are languages spoken by only several thousands of people.
To the first group belong such languages as English, Chinese, French, Russian, Ukrainian, etc. At the opposite extreme stand languages like Chitimacha, an American Indian language which in the late 1930's1 had only two speakers left.
Everyone should understand that for the linguist there are no big or small languages. For each people the language is not only a means of communication, but also an embodi¬ment of national and cultural values. Nevertheless, when we have to decide which of the world's languages to study, we take into consideration the differences in the social and functional status of each language.
When we consider English, we cannot misregard the fact that the English language is spoken i)y more native speakers than any other language except, presumably, North Chinese. English is native or the first language for the most population of Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand. Besides, there are many areas, former British colonies (In¬dia, Nigeria, Ghana) where English is not a native language, but a second language with official status in education and administration, and for communication between speakers of * other languages. If we take into account the important fac¬tor of speakers of English as a foreign language, it is most widely spread of the world's languages, English is one of the five official languages of the UNO2 (alongside of French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese). It is the working language during the meetings of the General Assembly3 and Security Council of the UNO. No wonder that so many people in various countries spare no efforts to acquire English for communication.
In Ukraine, higher schools students and postgraduates are trained to have a good knowledge of English, to read and use professional literature in their practical activity. As this textbook is for technical students, let us dwell on some peculiarities of technical English.
Technical English is often said to be difficult to under¬stand. At first sight this may seem true5. There are a number of reasons why technical writing is rather difficult. It con¬cerns first of all its vocabulary.
The scientific and technological progress has enriched the vocabulary with a great deal of new words, new meanings and new word-combinations. Who today does not Kннуw such words as computer, transistor, laser, etc? Scientists and technologists also use many ordinary, everyday words to denote new terminological meanings. For example, the words aroma, and charm with the meaning attractiveness are used to denote the physical characteristics of the quark, a fundamental physical particle.
Each branch of science and technology has its own vo¬cabulary (terminology). Many of them are formed on the basis of Greek or Latin words and are often international. Some technical words, such as power, roll, stress, strain, Movement, etc. borrowed from everyday English sometimes cause much greater difficulty than terminology. In addition to terms, a text on some special problem usually contains so-called learned words, such as approximate, compute, feasible, exclude, indicate, initial, respectively, etc.
As to the familiar grammatical patterns and models, they are the same as in everyday English. There is, certainly, a difference in the frequency with which certain grammatical forms occur.
Scientific and technical writing is usually about things, matter, natural processes, and it is impersonal in style. The Passive Voice of verb forms, the constructions Subject and Complex Object are frequently used. The first person singular is not generally used.
Simple sentences are rarely used, for isolated facts or events are seldom dealt with by the engineer. He has to show what the connection is, not only what happens, but also how it happens, when it happens, why it happens, and what is being effected.
The style of most scientific texts, besides being imperso¬nal, is also very concise. It is because the author-scientist is writing primarily for other scientists.
In order to master technical English the learner must first acquire a thorough knowledge of everyday literary English with its grammar, vocabulary and rules of word formation. Then it will be easy for him to learn, step by step, the peculiarities of technical English. It should be born in mind6, however, that understanding and translation of scientific-technical literature requires an additional training connected with knowledge of specific terminology.

Скачати DOC http://radfiz.org.ua/files/k2/s3/En ... nglish.doc
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Повідомлення Василь » 11 вересня 2011, 22:57

YATEL. LESSON ONE. Text B. BRITISH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

English, or Standard (If1. P.— Received Pronunciation) English is the type of English that is used by educated people throughout the English-speaking world. Nevertheless, it is not completely uniform. There are differences between the national standards (e. g. in Britain, America, and Australia) and also variants within each English-speaking country. For example, within the Northern English, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The most firmly established national standards are British (B. E.) and American English (A. E.), the others tending to follow the usage of these two. It is this English that is taught in the education system of English-speaking countries and is also taught to foreigners. It is this variety that appears in print and in the spoken language of the mass media.
The Americans have developed their own particular style "in various aspects of the language.
Even with comparable education and social position, a present-day New-Yorker and a present-day Londoner can find themselves using forms of English which are equally correct but which are quite distinct in vocabulary, in grammar, in pronunciation and in spelling. In other words, there are rules and norms -for A. E. which are independent of the corresponding rules and norms for B. E. *
Differences in spelling, pronunciation and in grammar between B. E. and A. E. are relatively minor. More differences occur in vocabulary. They are called Americanisms.
When we speak of Americanisms in language we mean words or other language features that are characteristic of the English used in the USA. Many usages that were originally Americanisms have been fully integrated into B. E. and their origin is no longer recognized: radio, immigrant, teenager, to locate, live wire, hot air, cold war, mass meeting, etc.
Americanisms of recent usages that are thought to originate in the United States are resistered by some British writers and speakers: O. K., I guess, to check up on, to win out, to lose out, etc.
The first American spelling reformer was Benjamin Franklin, the second was Noah Webster. Here are some peculiarities of American spelling: honor, color for B. E. honour, colour; theater, meter for B. E. theatre, metre; defense, offense for B. E. defence, offence, etc.
A single consonant is used for the double one in B. E. in such words as traveler, traveled, wagon; etc. In American texts you find check for cheque in B. E.; draft for draught; program for programme, etc. We must remember, though, that many British writers use some American spellings and that certain American authors occasionally prefer British usage.
Particularly numerous are Americanisms in scientific and technical literature. For instance, in A. E. a tram is a freight-car, the underground is a subway, petrol is gasoline, a pavement is a sidewalk. In America a man wears pants (trousers), drawers (pants), an undershirt (vest), suspenders (braces), and halfshoes (shoes).
Though less in number, there are important differences in grammar as well. Englishmen today no longer use the form gotten as the Past Participle of the verb get, but it is the form commonly accepted in America. Americans use the auxiliary do with the verb have in many cases where the English would not do so.
The numerous differences between these two standards create some difficulties for the language learner, who naturally wonders whether he should try to use English or American grammar, British or American words. Some learners hesitate which of the two forms is more correct. Perhaps the best attitude for the learner to take is not one of judging whether British English or American English is more correct, but rather to observe differences between them carefully and catalogue them in his mind. When speaking or writing, he should try to be consistent, that is, he should try to use British grammar and words, or American grammar and words throughout and avoid a mixture of the two.
The great number of differences that exist between B. E. and A. E. caused the question of whether they can be considered the same language at all.
It is to be hoped that the varieties of English will not diverge to the extent of impending international communication in English. This hope is based on the fact that in the course of time with the development of the modern means of communication the lexical differences between the two variants show a tendency to decrease. Americanisms penetrate into Standard English and Britishisms come to be widely used in American speech.

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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення qwerty » 18 вересня 2011, 19:25

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Re: Англійська мова

Повідомлення Василь » 19 вересня 2011, 04:22

YATEL. LESSON TWO. TEXT A. Science helps man to survive
Science helps man to survive
The present civilization is on the eve of the third millenium of our era. According to some scientists, man has lived on the Earth for over 2,000,000 years. The development of human life has been very rapid if we consider man's existence as one long uphill struggle for survival in the severe environment.

One of the greatest philosophers of antiquity Lucretius Carus, in his poem On the Nature of Things, described how human life changed: man learned to use fire, skins and dwellings and established the laws of marriage and good neighborliness.

It took man some 20 thousand years to learn how to use the energy of fire and how to use clay for making pots, to domesticate animals and to be able to make the simple clothes for himself. It was some 10 thousand years ago that writing was invented, and it became possible for people to record and pass on their knowledge about the environment from generation to generation. It was practically not long ago (in 1454—55)) that the printing press was invented, and so books were used to disseminate knowledge.

A scientific explanation of the world surrounding man began in prehistoric times, probably in Egypt and Babylonia , more than 2,000 years В. С. But true progress in science did not begin until the sixth century В. С, whenthe Greek civilization was in full flourish. Any school student can name many contributions made to the development of science and technics in the period from the ancient Greeks to the Renaissance . The scholars of ancient Greece and Rome say in their records that by the time they came on the scene humanity had gone a long way and had acquired many skills and a great deal of knowledge. From its first steps, the development of
science and technology have influenced the growth of our civilization more and more.

Today we see the world in which social, industrial and even political order has been greatly influenced by science. The achievements of science and technology during the past hundred years have modified our homes, places of work, means of communications and even our enjoyment. In general, although not always, scientific progress has engendered technology and medicine. Solving the problem of the environment — such as global warming, or the depletion of the ozone layer is the task of technology.

Science now is radically changing the instruments of production, the objects of labour and the whole of technology and organization of production. It has become a productive force' while production is becoming a technological branch of modern science.

Due to the progress of science and technology in our remarkable age we may speak of an entirely new era of supersonic speeds.

In the twinkling of an eye — which scientists say lasts about one sixth of a second — a modern supersonic plane covers a distance of nearly a quarter of a kilometer, and a space rocket — several kilometres. A special research camera can take more than 100 million shots a second; some very fine chemical reactions take only a thousandth or a ten thousandth of a second, while the fission of uranium nuclei lasts a few millionths of a second.

Man cannot follow, let alone control, such speeds by conventional levers, switches or relays. Arid so he adopted light for his speedometer. It is the fastest thing there is, and covers 300,000 kilometers a second. For his executive man chose the electron, the smallest and most mobile particle of the material world. Its speed and versatility has helped man to make a great number of electronic instruments and devices, the most important of them being the electronic amplifier. Having become the basis of a new field of science and technology known as electronics or radio
electronics, it found a wide application.

Electronic devices help to amplify extremely weak electrical charges, oscillations and signals. They have enabled man to hear how grass grows, to amplify the whine of a mosquito to the proportions of a thunder crash, and to detect the electrical signals which arise in the human brain in the process of thinking. An electronic valve cans generate its own signals at the fantastic frequency of millions of oscillations a second. Mounted on radio waves they travel to the Moon, the Sun and other celestial bodies at the speed of 300,000 kilometers a second. These signals are reduced to less than a thousand millionth of their initial volume on their way to a planet, and as they are reflected from its surface and arrive back on Earth, electronic devices amplify them back to the required volume. Photoelements will record the flare of a match struck on the Moon.

Everybody can give many more examples of this kind. One might go on and on, describing many wonders that once would have been regarded as truly magical. The advance in the scientific and technical progress is the outcome, primarily of the talent, inventiveness and the efforts of man. Scientific and technological inventions are beneficial only when they help to improve man's living and working conditions. However, recent developments in nuclear power engineering have proved that they can be very dangerous for the very survival of the human race. The more complex and intricate are the innovations of man's intellectual activity, the higher is the responsibility of scientists for the outcomes of application and use of their innovations.

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