Англійська мова за ПС

Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення GorbachenkoVasyl » 09 жовтня 2010, 16:24

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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Староста » 10 жовтня 2010, 18:36

8. EDUCATION
All children and young people between the ages of 4 or 5 and 16 must receive full-time, education. About 93 percent receive free education from public funds, the rest attend private fee-paying schools. The average pupil-teacher ratio for all schools is about 17 to 1.
The principal examination, at about the age of 16, is the General Certificate of Secondary Education. A mixture of the advanced level of the General Certificate of Education and advanced supplementary level (giving opportunities for study in a , wider range of subjects) may, be taken at 18. It is the standard for entrance to higher education courses as well as many forms of professional training.* About 2/5 of all young people get some form of post-school education. About 1/6 enter full-time higher education courses at the 47 universities, 31 polytech¬nics, 15 Scottish central institutions and other publicly funded colleges. Over 90 percent of students on full-time higher-education courses receive tuition and maintenance grants from public funds.
, The public exams taken by British schoolchildren are GCSEs (the General Certificate of Secondary Education). They take them at 16 Some children take 3 or 4, others take as many as 10 or II. Those who have passed GCSEs may remain at school for another 2 years and take their "A" (advanced) level exams. Any student who wants to go to university needs to pass at least 2 or 3 "A" levels.

9. HIGHER EDUCATION
There are different kinds of educational institutions in Great Britain: universities, colleges (residential and non-residential), Univer¬sity extra-mural departments, evening departments at colleges.
if you want to go to university, you usually apply during your last year at school, when you are 17-18. You can apply to study at any university in Britain and most people choose a university that is not in their own town. So, university students usually live away from home. Students get a grant or a loan from the government to study.
At the beginning of your last year at school you receive an application form. On this form you choose up to five universities that you would like to go to. The form is sent ю those universities with information from your school about you and your academic record. If the universities are interested in your application, they will ask you to attend an interview. If they are still interested after the interview, they will offer you a place.
Any offer, however, is only conditional at this stage. Applications and interviews take place several months before students do their A-level examinations. These are the exams that you do at the end, of your time at school. So, when a university makes an offer, it will tell you the minimum grades that you will have to gel when you do your A-level exams. If you don't get those grades, then you will not be able to accept the place. It will be offered to someone else and you must apply again to another university.
You don't have iq accept your place immediately Some students don't want to go straight from school to university, so after they have taken their A-levels, they take a year out to work or travel. '
At present there are about 40 universities in Great Britain: practically every big city of the country has a university.
A university usually consists of some colleges, which are a part of the University. They provide training and give degrees to their students.
Universities in Britain are different from those in other countries. They greatly differ from each other in date of foundation, history, tradition, size, methods of teaching, way of student life, etc.
Until the 19th century there were only two universities in England: Oxford and Cambridge. Both Universities are residential.
They have a tutorial system of education.
Each student has a tutor who helps the student to plan his work.
The student must regularly come to see his tutor. They discuss different questions and problems. A student writes papers on the subject which he is studying and submits them regularly to his tutor for correction.
The modern Universities are University of London, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and others. They are not residential. They provide instruction chiefly by means of lectures attended mainly by day students.
Most of civic universities were founded in the 19th century as University colleges. Later they became universities. These universities were founded to serve the needs of their city and surrounding area, in contrast to Oxford, Cambridge and London which took students from all over the country.
College is a separate institution. Most colleges are state colleges but there are also private colleges.
At present there are about 300 technical colleges in England. They give diplomas, not degrees. The course for training specialists at such colleges is shorter as a rule than at the universities. It usually lasts 3 or 4 years, while at the universities it lasts as a rule more than 4 years.
A person ,who studies for a degree at a British University is called an undergraduate Bachelor of Arts or of Science is the first degree. One can become a B.A. after 3 years of hard study and a M.A, (Master of Arts or of Science) at the end of 5 years. Doctor of Philosophy is the highest degree.
Tuition costs a lot of money, about 800 dollars. We have to pay for taking examinations, for attending lectures, for borrowing books from the library, for hostel accommodations.
At all British universities there are good sporting grounds for jumping, boxing, skating, playing football, golf and other games.
The academic year has 3 terms. Each term lasts about eight — ten weeks. Between terms the students have their holidays — a month in winter, a month in spring and three or four months in summer.
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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Batarchuk » 18 жовтня 2010, 18:25

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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Василь » 19 жовтня 2010, 17:10

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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Василь » 31 жовтня 2010, 21:27

London
http://radfiz.org.ua/files/k1/English/text_london/

LONDON
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world.
Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, The Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17 century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the government part of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theaters are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum - the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.
The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working class families.
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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Василь » 13 листопада 2010, 06:49

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Visitors

Повідомлення andron » 16 листопада 2010, 22:58

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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Василь » 22 листопада 2010, 06:47

TEXT A. BASIC FACTS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS

In recent years tremendous advances have been made in the development of various branches of physics.
The most remarkable researchers of the twentieth century have substantiated two ideas about the nature of the matter which the Greek philosophers formulated twenty centuries ago. One is the theory that the many thousands of substances which exist in the world are formed out of a small number of simpler substances or elements (molecules). The other theory is that matter is constructed out of tiny particles or units, the so-called atoms of matter.
The modern scientist is convinced of the existence of molecules and atoms. Everything in and on the earth, the moon, the sun, and all other stars, is made of atoms, Billions of atoms together make everything that exists. Take a handful of air, and you will hold billions of atoms.
Look at your handful of atoms. You can't see a single one, no matter how hard you look, for every atom is too small to be seen even with a powerful microscope.
The atoms which form the molecules are, of course, smaller than the molecules, while the electrons of which the atoms are composed are yet smaller. From various experiments scientists concluded that the diameter of the average molecule is about one 125,000,000th of an inch. Since atoms compose molecules, they must be still smaller. If each atom in an orange measured one inch in diameter, the orange would be as large as the earth.
Molecules all vary in size, depending upon the number and size of the atoms which compose them. They vary from simple ones consisting of two atoms such as the hydrogen molecules, to complex ones, like those of starch, some of which contain as many as 2,500 atoms. Protein molecules are even larger than this.
Not all the atoms weigh the same amount. From the way atoms act, scientists have been able to compare their weight and list them in a table beginning with the lightest and ending with the heaviest. Such a table was created in 1869 by D. I. Mendeleyev, the great Russian scientist.
Hydrogen, the gas used in toy balloons, is very light. Uranium, the ore used for atomic energy production, is the heaviest, and its atom is the last in the table of atoms that exist naturally. Heavier ones which follow uranium in the table have been made by man.
The practical uses of nuclear energy are based on a knowledge of the structure of matter. Our knowledge of the internal structure of the atom is a twentieth century achievement. It is extremely new, so new in fact, that physicists realize that far more remains to be found out than has already been discovered. Yet that knowledge has already played an important part in the advance of chemistry and industry, and most recently in the peaceful use of atomic energy.


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Re: Англійська мова за ПС

Повідомлення Василь » 29 листопада 2010, 07:09

С кучей ошибок - диалог White&Brown

Mr. Brown Good afternoon Mr. White! How are you?
Ms. White: Very well indeed. Thank you! And how are you?
Brown: Quite well. Thank you. Wont you sit down?
Ms. White: Excuse me please. I think that mu nice at the door. Hello Betty dear. I so glad to see you! You do look well. I don’t think? You mat each other before!
Let me introduce you. This is my nice Ms. Smith.
Mr. White: How do you do?
Ms. White: How do you do?
Mr. Brown: and now lets have some tea.
Ms. Brown: How do you like your tea Mr. White? Strong or weak?
Ms. White: Not to strong, please and lump of sugar. I like my tea raze sweet. But my hasbent prepares his with out sugar.
Mr. Brown: Well: what is the news?
Mr. White: How is business?
Mr. White: Pretty good. Thank you and how are things with you?
Mr. Brown: Well, not to good. I’m going from bad to worse. Infact,it’s the worse year we’had for long time.
Mr. White: I’m sorry to hear that. I hope think to saw improve. I think will soon improve.
Mr. Brown: Yes lets hope for the best. And how is your nephew Richard getting on?
Mr. White: Oh, he is getting on quite well. Thank you! He is staying in the country just now with his uncle. He is staying in the country with……………………
Mr. Brown: How long is he going to stay there?
Mr. White: I don’t know exactly< and hi is having a very pleason time. And it is doing them a lot of good .
So the longer he stays the better.
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